In the final he defeated Scotland's 2006 world champion Graeme Dott 18-13.
The English pair of Allister Carter and Mark Selby lost out in the semifinals.
Robertson received £250,000 for the victory and Dott got £125,000 for his runner-up spot.
Mark Allen (N.Ireland) and Dott shared the £10,000 high break bonus after compiling the first breaks of 146 in world championship history. In total there were only 59 centuries in this year's event.
Defending champion, scandal-stricken John Higgins (Scotland) surprisingly lost 13-11 to living legend Steve Davis in the second round. This was the 30th world championship appearance for Davis. The last player to successfully defend his world title was Stephen Hendry (Scotland) in 1996.
This was the first world title for Robertson. His previous best was last year when he reached the semifinals. It was his second ranking title of the season and fifth of his career. He has yet to lose a ranking final.
He was the first Australian to lift the world trophy since Horace Lindrum in 1952. Many don't consider Lindrum's win to be legitimate though.
With this win Robertson improves from ninth to a career-best second in the official rankings. Dott climbs from 28th to 13th.
Higgins moves from fourth to first and Ronnie O'Sullivan drops from first to third. Peter Ebdon and Joe Perry drop out of the top 16. Liang Wenbo (China) is the only first-timer in the exclusive group.
The event took place Apr 17 - May 3, 2010 at the Crucible Theatre, Sheffield, England. It was the last of six ranking tournaments on the 2009/2010 Main Tour.
- Robertson Captures World Title (World Snooker)
- Neil Robertson becomes first Australian to take world snooker title (Times Online)
- Aussie Neil Robertson beats Dott to win world title (BBC)
- Robertson world champion after epic (Eurosport)
- Robertson is World Champion (Sporting Life)
- 2010 Betfred World Snooker Championship (Global Snooker)
- The World Turns for Robertson (Snooker Scene blog)
- Let’s hear it for the Thunder from down under! (Pro Snooker Blog)
- SnookerManager: World Championship 2010
- World Snooker Championship 2010 (Wikipedia)
- World Snooker Championship (Wikipedia)
- Neil Robertson (Official page)
- Neil Robertson (Wikipedia)
- Dott is new world snooker champion (2006 World Championship)
- John Higgins wins the Snooker World Championship - again (2007 World Championship)
- Ronnie O'Sullivan wins third World Snooker Championship (2008 World Championship)
- John Higgins wins the World Snooker Championship for a third time (2009 World Championship)
- O'Sullivan pockets 2009 Shanghai Masters (2009/2010 Main Tour)
- It's four from four as Robertson nicks 2009 Grand Prix (2009/2010 Main Tour)
- Ding Junhui captures 2009 UK Championship (2009/2010 Main Tour)
- John Higgins captures Grand Prix (2009/2010 Main Tour)
- Selby takes 2010 Masters with impressive comeback (2009/2010 Main Tour)
- Higgins wins 2010 Welsh Open in dominant fashion (2009/2010 Main Tour)
- Mark Williams completes strong comeback to win 2010 China Open (2009/2010 Main Tour)