The two-time world champion won seven of the last eight frames in the final to defeat home favourite and 2005 winner Ding Junhui 10-6.
The Welshman received £55,000 for the victory and Junhui got £28,000 for finishing second.
Mark Allen (N.Ireland) and Allister Carter (England) lost out in the semifinals.
Neil Robertson made a career first 147 in his 5-1 loss to Peter Ebdon to claim the high break prize of £22,000.
This was the third China Open title for Williams and his 17th ranking title. His last ranking final was four years ago when he won the 2006 edition of this event.
The win lifts Williams from ninth to seventh in the provisional rankings. Junhui improves from seventh to fifth. The top two remain the same, with Ronnie O'Sullivan (England) in first and John Higgins (Scotland) in second. Carter swaps places with Robertson to sit in third.
The event took place at the Beijing Students University Stadium, China 29 March to 4 April, 2010. Next up on the snooker calendar is the Betfred.com World Championship which starts 17 April 2010.
- China Open 2010 (World Snooker)
- Mark Williams beats Ding Junhui to win China Open title (BBC)
- Williams captures China Open crown (Eurosport)
- Williams Claims China Open Title (Sporting Life)
- China Open Snooker 2010 (Global Snooker)
- 2010 China Open (Wikipedia)
- China Open 2010: Williams ends title drought – Read how it happened (Pro Snooker Blog)
- Williams has China in his Hands (Snooker Scene Blog)
- SnookerManager: China Open 2010
- China Open (Wikipedia)
- Mark Williams (Wikipedia)
- O'Sullivan pockets 2009 Shanghai Masters (2009 Main Tour)
- It's four from four as Robertson nicks 2009 Grand Prix (2009 Main Tour)
- Ding Junhui captures 2009 UK Championship (2009 Main Tour)
- John Higgins captures Grand Prix (2009 Main Tour)
- Selby takes 2010 Masters with impressive comeback (2009 Main Tour)
- Higgins wins 2010 Welsh Open in dominant fashion (2009 Main Tour)
- Williams wins in China (2006 China Open)
- Graeme Dott claims China Open trophy (2007 China Open)
- Maguire makes maximum on the way to China Open title (2008 China Open)
- Ebdon returns to winner's circle in 2009 China Open (2009 China Open)